ITED 635 Final Exam Study Guide

Here are the guidelines for the final exam:

Total Points: 50 (remember that the class total is 250, so this is 20% of the overall grade).

Possible methods of taking the exam: (you may attempt option1, then decide to 'downgrade' to options 2 or 3).

Methods for Studying: Additional Support:

The following is a result of a brainstorming effort that the class conducted in groups on October 4th, 2000.  The intention of this effort was to list the various applications of Learning Theory, as learned in Marcy Driscoll's book Psychology of Learning for Instruction, 2nd edition, through chapter 8.

Note: As this information was put together by students in the class, the accuracy of the examples may sometimes be questioned.  I encourage independent verification of the reading materials in cases where the examples don't seem 'right'.

Names: Kathy Scott, Wayne Lyndaker, Rory Szwed, Carter Eldridge

Date: November 8, 2000

Community Domain of Instructional Technology

1) Training of Employees

A) Instructors
1) Assessment
a) Observation
b) Civil Service Exams
B) Modules
1) Apprenticeship
2) Meaningful Learning (Ausubel)
3) Cognitive Organizers

2) Awareness

A) Attitudes
1) Motivation
a) Intrinsic
b) Learning Communities
2) Simulations
a) Reenactments
b) Video Scenarios
B) Behaviorism
1) Management
2) Reinforcement
a) Promotion
b) Recognition
c) Compensation

3) Counseling

A) Behavior Management
1) Goals
a) Setting
b) Maintaining
2) Reinforcers
a) Feedback
B) Anchoring
1) Social Learning Theory

Names: (Sara Kent, Matt Monette, Virginia Kinch, Jennifer Smith)

Date: October 4th, 2000

Setting: Formal Education: Elementary Education


Selective attention:  A student sitting next to you distracts you by playing with his eraser in his desk, therefore the teacher loses their attention.

positive reinforcement:  A child puts their toys away more often because when they do, they are rewarded with a sticker.

negative reinforcement:  If you do your homework all week, you do not have to take the quiz at the end of the week.

punishment:  The student can't go to recess because she didn't do her homework.

contingency contract:  Students in a multi-aged classroom are not all at the same achievement levels, so the teacher and the students negotiate a contract each week which indicates expected progress.


chaining:  Students need to know how to multiply before teahing division.

shaping:  Students write a story.  First, write just sentences, then write paragraphs and so on.


rehearsal:  Students say the math facts over and over.

network models:  learn through models such as the food chain web

mnemonics:  Students learn through things that help them remember, ROY G BIV

encoding:  Learn multiplication by knowing addition facts first.


social knowledge:  Students learn rules through interaction with classmates.


preoperational stage:  During playtime students pretend to be on the phone like their parents are at night.

concrete operational:  Students can solve a long division problem in logical stages.

Names: Abbi LaPage, Shawn Cummings, Jeff Weker

Date: October 4th, 2000

Setting: Formal Education 7-12 Science (*Formal/informal teacher training* Workshops* Curriculum development* Internet distance learning)

1. Reinforcer- for higher level of behavior

 - very unstructured

* Classroom management/Effective teaching

1.  Extinction
2.  Positive reinforcement
- praise

3.  Punishment

- detention

4.  Primary reinforcer ? a.  variable interval

- pizza day/lunch

 b.  fixed ratio

- Cookie Points

* Inclusion- they give you selective attention

1.  Readiness
- not ready, but we get them anyway
- Assessment
- Regents Exam

1.  Forgetting- failure to encode and retrieve

- Staff Standards

 1.  Anchoring ideas

- Zinc Corporation of America

- Local farms

  2.  Advanced organizers

  3.  Automaticity- on Regents questions may be pattern recognition

 _    Discovery Learning/ Lab

  1.  Objectivism

- Gagne, experience

  2.  Pragmatism

- Vygotsky, experience and reason combined

3.  Interpretivism

 - Piaget, reason

Names: Heather Gutchess, Kim Hye-Jin, Eric Pomainville, Beth Elsner, Sue Emerson

Date: October 4th, 2000.

Setting: Formal Education - Secondary Education

1. Behavior Management

a. Positive reinforcement Ex:  Movie pass for completing all homework assignments during a ten-week marking period.
b. Variable Ratio Ex:  Checking homework periodically to collect and grade.

2. Cognitive Development

a. Discovery Learning (Inquiry teaching) Ex:  Have students cut out a triangle from a piece of paper.  Then have them cut off the three angles from the triangle.  Let them figure out that the three angles when put together form a straight line.  (180 degrees)  Therefore the total numbers of  degrees in a triangle is equal to 180.

3. Meaningful Learning  (Ausubel)

a. Advanced Organizer/Graphic Organizer Ex:  Note sheets, Review packets, Histograms, and Tables and Charts etc…..
b. Prior Knowledge Ex:  Pretest (Giving the students a test at the beginning of the year basically to see what they know)
c. Dale’s Cone of Experience Ex:  Students learn better through their experiences and hands on activities.  Instead of showing the students how to find the  area of a rectangle, go outside and have them find the area of of something that is a rectangle.  (More meaningful)

4. Cognitive Information Processing

a. Mnemonics (encoding) Ex:  PEMDAS (Please excuse my dear aunt Sally) (P-parentheses, E-exponents, M-multiplication, D-division, A-addition, S-subtraction)
b. Selective Attention Ex:  Student is listening to the class, another student walks by in the hall and the student listening is distracted or selectively pays attention to the other student.

5. Higher Mental Process

a.  The Zone of Proximal Development Ex:  Pythagorean Rule (Most students can use the theorem, but do not actually understand where and when to use it) Students are still in the process of learning the theorem.
b. Intersubjectivity Ex:  Giving students 30 seconds to discuss a concept after you teach it.  Teach an idea and let partners discuss it to make sure they understand the new idea.

Names: Suzanne Evra, Shawn Snyder, Katie Winchell

Setting: Formal Education - Elementary Education

Domain: Behavior Management through shaping


 Positive Reinforcement: Stickers, ice cream passes
 Negative Reinforcement: 100 pretest = no test
 Fixed Ratio: stickers for good behavior = stickers, homework completed = stickers
 Variable Ratio: homework assignments collected randomly = stickers
 Reinforcement Removal:  specials taken away, no free time

Domain: Learning Cognition


Working memory-chunking, rehearsal, encoding-mnemonics
Automaticity- read aloud activities, ABC’s, math facts

Domain: Superordinate Learning


Learning Development- Physical Knowledge, Logical-Mathematical, Social Knowledge

Domain: Preoperational-Concrete Operational


Piagetian Inspired Instruction
1) The learning environment should support the activity of the child.
2) Children’s interaction with peers is an important source of cognitive development.

Names: Sandi Shoen, Chad Simpson, Ron Mason, Jenna Brown

Setting: Business and Industry

Defining Business and Industry to include one or more of the following areas: conferences, instructional training, consulting, entrepreneurship, workshops, administrative personnel, teacher training.

     1. Reinforcement principles:

  1. Positive reinforcements: Paycheck, Commendations, Advancements, Bonus, Company Perks, like access to the health club.
  2. Negative reinforcements: Dock pay, lose job, warning in personnel file, poor grade on performance review.
  3. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Interval: Regular paychecks and evaluation dates.
  4. Variable Ratio Reinforcement Interval: Bonus hinges on surpassing a quota.
  1. Learned Helplessness: The boss is not open to new ideas, so why bother. Menial labor staff, like janitors, see no room for advancement, so don’t perform any duties out of their job description.
  2. Automaticity: Factory workers on assembly line, cashiers, truck drivers, perform job duties in automatic mode without focusing their full attention on task.
  3. Selective Attention: Focus the learner on a new piece of machinery, or a new method of processing office mail, or a another delivery off the regular route.
  4. Chunking, Chaining, Encoding: Ways to help the staff make sense of new processes or new information. grouping similar information together, break down learning to simple steps for job performance. Show how it is relevant to business and provide opportunities for continued use to ensure encoding and transference.
  5. Discovery Learning: Important in any business for problem solving and in entrpreneurship,. Owners must discover what works best for them as a continuous learning process as the company evolves and grows.
  6. Formal Operations: Many business owners have the ability to see the abstract and develop an idea into something concrete. Especially entrepreneurs.
  7. Egocentrism: Often found at the work place. People may feel they are experts and not listen to input from others or not remember that others may not have the same knowledge base and are forcing learning out of zone of proximal development.
  8. Sociocultural History: adapting to interoffice culture. Company jargon, dress code, specialties and practices that may distinguish them from others.
  9. Dale’s Cone of Experience: Prior knowledge must be established before new training can take place, before new ideas can be conceived, before problems can be solved in the work place.

Important Considerations when applying Constructivist Learning Theory
  • Environment
  • (Learning in) Context
  • Ownership
  • Continuous nature of learning
  • Self-awareness of knowledge construction
  • Entry Behaviors needed (prerequisite knowledge)
  • No set theory of learning (multitude of approaches)
  • Learners Construct Knowledge
  • Learner Centered
  • Feedback is Essential
  • Motivation is increased




  • Higher Instructor/Learner Ratio Required
  • Increased Time Required
  • Accountability is sometimes difficult
  • Applies better to older learners with:
    1. Experience
    2. Prior Knowledge

    Here are some student created overviews of Learning Theory/Learning Theory Components:

    The "Isms"

    An Overview of Learning Theory

    Reinforcement (1)

    Reinforcement (2)

    Reinforcement (3)

    Gagne/Dale/Bruner combined


    Back to the ITED 635: Research and Theory in Instructional Technology home page

    This page created 10/16/00 by Anthony Betrus.  Last updated 11/5/00.