ITED 635 Final Exam Study Guide
Here are the guidelines for the final exam:
Total Points: 50 (remember that the class total is 250, so this
is 20% of the overall grade).
Possible methods of taking the exam: (you may attempt option1,
then decide to 'downgrade' to options 2 or 3).
Methods for Studying:
In-class, closed book (50 points maximum)
In-class, open book (45 points maximum)
Take Home (40 points maximum)
Look over old quizzes
Look over old reaction papers
Review your notes created while doing reaction papers.
Review your notes from in class.
Review the following pages in the two texts:
Seels and Richey, pages: 1, 10, 14, 26, 82, 101-102.
Driscoll, pages: 14, 16, 21, 36, 39, 40, 43, 47, 51, 52, 77, 120, 121,
190, 192, 225, 247, 364, 391.
The following is a result of a brainstorming effort that the class conducted
in groups on October 4th, 2000. The intention of this effort was
to list the various applications of Learning Theory, as learned in Marcy
Driscoll's book Psychology of Learning for Instruction, 2nd edition,
through chapter 8.
Note: As this information was put together by students in the class,
the accuracy of the examples may sometimes be questioned. I encourage
independent verification of the reading materials in cases where the examples
don't seem 'right'.
Names: Kathy Scott, Wayne Lyndaker, Rory Szwed, Carter
Date: November 8, 2000
Community Domain of Instructional Technology
1) Training of Employees
b) Civil Service Exams
2) Meaningful Learning (Ausubel)
3) Cognitive Organizers
b) Learning Communities
b) Video Scenarios
A) Behavior Management
1) Social Learning Theory
Names: (Sara Kent, Matt Monette, Virginia Kinch,
Date: October 4th, 2000
Setting: Formal Education: Elementary Education
Selective attention: A student sitting next
to you distracts you by playing with his eraser in his desk, therefore
the teacher loses their attention.
positive reinforcement: A child puts their
toys away more often because when they do, they are rewarded with a sticker.
negative reinforcement: If you do your homework
all week, you do not have to take the quiz at the end of the week.
punishment: The student can't go to recess
because she didn't do her homework.
contingency contract: Students in a multi-aged
classroom are not all at the same achievement levels, so the teacher and
the students negotiate a contract each week which indicates expected progress.
chaining: Students need to know how to multiply
before teahing division.
shaping: Students write a story. First,
write just sentences, then write paragraphs and so on.
rehearsal: Students say the math facts over
network models: learn through models such as
the food chain web
mnemonics: Students learn through things that
help them remember, ROY G BIV
encoding: Learn multiplication by knowing addition
social knowledge: Students learn rules through
interaction with classmates.
preoperational stage: During playtime students
pretend to be on the phone like their parents are at night.
concrete operational: Students can solve a
long division problem in logical stages.
Names: Abbi LaPage, Shawn Cummings, Jeff Weker
Date: October 4th, 2000
Setting: Formal Education 7-12 Science (*Formal/informal
teacher training* Workshops* Curriculum development* Internet distance
1. Reinforcer- for higher level of behavior
- very unstructured
* Classroom management/Effective teaching
2. Positive reinforcement
4. Primary reinforcer ? a. variable interval
- pizza day/lunch
b. fixed ratio
- Cookie Points
* Inclusion- they give you selective attention
- not ready, but we get them anyway
- Regents Exam
1. Forgetting- failure to encode and retrieve
- Staff Standards
1. Anchoring ideas
- Zinc Corporation of America
- Local farms
2. Advanced organizers
3. Automaticity- on Regents questions
may be pattern recognition
_ Discovery Learning/ Lab
- Gagne, experience
- Vygotsky, experience and reason combined
- Piaget, reason
Names: Heather Gutchess, Kim Hye-Jin, Eric Pomainville,
Beth Elsner, Sue Emerson
Date: October 4th, 2000.
Setting: Formal Education - Secondary Education
1. Behavior Management
a. Positive reinforcement Ex: Movie
pass for completing all homework assignments during a ten-week marking
b. Variable Ratio Ex: Checking homework
periodically to collect and grade.
2. Cognitive Development
a. Discovery Learning (Inquiry teaching) Ex:
Have students cut out a triangle from a piece of paper. Then have
them cut off the three angles from the triangle. Let them figure
out that the three angles when put together form a straight line.
(180 degrees) Therefore the total numbers of degrees in a triangle
is equal to 180.
3. Meaningful Learning (Ausubel)
a. Advanced Organizer/Graphic Organizer Ex:
Note sheets, Review packets, Histograms, and Tables and Charts etc…..
b. Prior Knowledge Ex: Pretest (Giving
the students a test at the beginning of the year basically to see what
c. Dale’s Cone of Experience Ex:
Students learn better through their experiences and hands on activities.
Instead of showing the students how to find the area of a rectangle,
go outside and have them find the area of of something that is a rectangle.
4. Cognitive Information Processing
a. Mnemonics (encoding) Ex: PEMDAS (Please
excuse my dear aunt Sally) (P-parentheses, E-exponents, M-multiplication,
D-division, A-addition, S-subtraction)
b. Selective Attention Ex: Student
is listening to the class, another student walks by in the hall and the
student listening is distracted or selectively pays attention to the other
5. Higher Mental Process
a. The Zone of Proximal Development
Ex: Pythagorean Rule (Most students can use the theorem, but do not
actually understand where and when to use it) Students are still in the
process of learning the theorem.
b. Intersubjectivity Ex: Giving
students 30 seconds to discuss a concept after you teach it. Teach
an idea and let partners discuss it to make sure they understand the new
Names: Suzanne Evra, Shawn Snyder, Katie Winchell
Setting: Formal Education - Elementary Education
Domain: Behavior Management through shaping
Positive Reinforcement: Stickers, ice
Negative Reinforcement: 100 pretest
= no test
Fixed Ratio: stickers for good behavior
= stickers, homework completed = stickers
Variable Ratio: homework assignments
collected randomly = stickers
Reinforcement Removal: specials
taken away, no free time
Domain: Learning Cognition
Working memory-chunking, rehearsal, encoding-mnemonics
Automaticity- read aloud activities, ABC’s,
Domain: Superordinate Learning
Learning Development- Physical Knowledge,
Logical-Mathematical, Social Knowledge
Domain: Preoperational-Concrete Operational
Piagetian Inspired Instruction
1) The learning environment should support the
activity of the child.
2) Children’s interaction with peers is an important
source of cognitive development.
Names: Sandi Shoen, Chad Simpson, Ron Mason, Jenna Brown
Setting: Business and Industry
Defining Business and Industry to include one or more of the following
areas: conferences, instructional training, consulting, entrepreneurship,
workshops, administrative personnel, teacher training.
1. Reinforcement principles:
Positive reinforcements: Paycheck, Commendations, Advancements,
Bonus, Company Perks, like access to the health club.
Negative reinforcements: Dock pay, lose job, warning in personnel
file, poor grade on performance review.
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Interval: Regular paychecks and evaluation
Variable Ratio Reinforcement Interval: Bonus hinges on surpassing
Learned Helplessness: The boss is not open to new ideas, so why
bother. Menial labor staff, like janitors, see no room for advancement,
so don’t perform any duties out of their job description.
Automaticity: Factory workers on assembly line, cashiers, truck
drivers, perform job duties in automatic mode without focusing their full
attention on task.
Selective Attention: Focus the learner on a new piece of machinery,
or a new method of processing office mail, or a another delivery off the
Chunking, Chaining, Encoding: Ways to help the staff make sense
of new processes or new information. grouping similar information together,
break down learning to simple steps for job performance. Show how it is
relevant to business and provide opportunities for continued use to ensure
encoding and transference.
Discovery Learning: Important in any business for problem solving
and in entrpreneurship,. Owners must discover what works best for them
as a continuous learning process as the company evolves and grows.
Formal Operations: Many business owners have the ability to see
the abstract and develop an idea into something concrete. Especially entrepreneurs.
Egocentrism: Often found at the work place. People may feel they
are experts and not listen to input from others or not remember that others
may not have the same knowledge base and are forcing learning out of zone
of proximal development.
Sociocultural History: adapting to interoffice culture. Company
jargon, dress code, specialties and practices that may distinguish them
Dale’s Cone of Experience: Prior knowledge must be established before
new training can take place, before new ideas can be conceived, before
problems can be solved in the work place.
Important Considerations when applying Constructivist Learning Theory
(Learning in) Context
Continuous nature of learning
Self-awareness of knowledge construction
Entry Behaviors needed (prerequisite knowledge)
No set theory of learning (multitude of approaches)
Learners Construct Knowledge
Feedback is Essential
Motivation is increased
Higher Instructor/Learner Ratio Required
Increased Time Required
Accountability is sometimes difficult
Applies better to older learners with:
Here are some student created overviews of Learning Theory/Learning
An Overview of Learning Theory
Back to the ITED 635: Research and Theory in Instructional
Technology home page
This page created 10/16/00 by Anthony
Betrus. Last updated 11/5/00.